Showing posts with label Nigeria LNG. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Nigeria LNG. Show all posts

Thursday, June 30, 2011

Africa LNG Market Outlook - New Opportunities, Trends and Drivers

Photo Credit: GOGE

30 Jun 2011 07:30 Africa/Lagos

ReportsnReports - Africa LNG Market Outlook - New Opportunities, Trends and Drivers to 2020

DALLAS, June 30, 2011/PRNewswire/ --

ReportsnReports announces it will carry 'Africa LNG Market Outlook - New Opportunities, Trends and Drivers to 2020' [ ] Report in its store

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Report Summary

A 150 page LNG Reports publication of July 2011, this report is a comprehensive report on current and future Africa LNG Market [ ] & business environment. It identifies all possible opportunities of contracting and investing in African markets. The report provides all major trends and drivers driving the industry growth to 2020. It forecasts country wise LNG capacity, LNG exports and natural gas production to 2020. In addition to monthly trade volumes from January to December 2010, it also provides annual LNG trade data from 2000 to 2020 by country.

Monthly LNG price data is provided for Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea and Libya for 2010. The report 'Africa LNG Market Outlook - New Opportunities, Trends and Drivers to 2020' also analyzes the trade pattern and the typical contracting terms followed in sale purchase agreements with supporting data. Key LNG strategies of 6 leading players in Africa are detailed. Further, the report also provides capacity addition details through new terminals and expansions. Current status of all the planned terminals in Africa is detailed along with all the latest developments in Africa LNG industry.

Research Highlights:

- African nations earn a sales revenue of $17.6 billion
through LNG exports in 2010
- African total LNG sales stood at 42.66 mtpa, with Europe
importing more than 68% of it.
- October witnessed the largest LNG exports from Africa, while the
annual average LNG price stood at $8.04/MMBtu
- All the African nations will increase their liquefaction
capacities over the next decade, resulting in capacity growth of 76.4
mtpa between 2010 and 2020
- Over 25% of African LNG production is traded in spot and short
term markets
- Africa will have surplus natural gas production of 135.3 Bcm in
2020, adequate enough to meet all the LNG export contracts
- Nigeria, with a total LNG production of 59.43 mtpa, will remain
the largest LNG producer in Africa
- South Africa and Kenya plan construction of LNG import plants
- As a part of its mid term strategy, Sonatrach plans to
strengthen its foothold in pacific basin markets
- Most African nations preferring construction of medium sized
liquefaction trains
- Around 70% of LNG contracts are signed on Delivery- on Ex-Ship
- 33.4 mtpa of capacity to be added through expansion of existing
LNG terminals

Related & Latest Reports:

- Africa LNG Industry Outlook to 2020 - Analysis of Trade
pattern, pricing, supply-demand, capacity, competition, technology and
[ ]
- Monthly Global LNG Trade & Price Database, 2010
[ ]
- Asia Pacific LNG Export and Import Markets to 2015 - Analysis
and Forecasts of Terminal wise Capacity and Associated Contracts, LNG
Trade movements and Prices
[ ]
- Europe LNG Export and Import Markets to 2015 - Analysis and
Forecasts of Terminal wise Capacity and Associated Contracts, LNG Trade
movements and Prices
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- LNG Industry Outlook in China, 2011 - Capacity Analysis,
Forecasts and Details of All Operating and Planned Regasification
Terminals to 2016
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Friday, May 20, 2011

Shell Decides to Move Forward With Groundbreaking Floating LNG

Shell Decides to Move Forward With Groundbreaking Floating LNG
Shell Announces Final Investment Decision on Prelude Floating LNG Project in Australia

The Hague, May 20 /PRNewswire/ — The Board of Royal Dutch Shell plc (Shell) has taken the final investment decision on the Prelude Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) Project in Australia (100% Shell), building the world's first FLNG facility. Moored far out to sea, some 200 kilometres from the nearest land in Australia, the FLNG facility will produce gas from offshore fields, and liquefy it onboard by cooling.

The decision means that Shell is now ready to start detailed design and construction of what will be the world's largest floating offshore facility, in a ship yard in South Korea.

From bow to stern, Shell's FLNG facility will be 488 metres long, and will be the largest floating offshore facility in the world - longer than four soccer fields laid end to end. When fully equipped and with its storage tanks full, it will weigh around 600,000 tonnes - roughly six times as much as the largest aircraft carrier. Some 260,000 tonnes of that weight will consist of steel, around five times more than was used to build the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

"Our innovative FLNG technology will allow us to develop offshore gas fields that otherwise would be too costly to develop," said Malcolm Brinded, Shell's Executive Director, Upstream International. "Our decision to go ahead with this project is a true breakthrough for the LNG industry, giving it a significant boost to help meet the world's growing demand for the cleanest-burning fossil fuel."

Brinded continued "FLNG technology is an exciting innovation, complementary to onshore LNG, which can help accelerate the development of gas resources".

The facility has been designed to withstand the severest cyclones - those of Category 5. Ocean-going LNG carriers will offload liquefied gas, chilled to minus162 Celsius and shrunk in volume by 600 times, and other products, directly from the facility out at sea for delivery to markets worldwide. Until now, the liquefaction of offshore gas has always involved piping the gas to a land-based plant.

Shell has progressed the Prelude FLNG project at a rapid pace, with first production of LNG expected some ten years after the gas was discovered.

The FLNG facility will tap around 3 trillion cubic feet equivalent of resources contained in the Prelude gas field. Shell discovered the Prelude gas field in 2007.

Some 110,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day of expected production from Prelude should underpin at least 5.3 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of liquids, comprising 3.6 mtpa of LNG, 1.3 mtpa of condensate and 0.4 mtpa of liquefied petroleum gas. The FLNG facility will stay permanently moored at the Prelude gas field for 25 years, and in later development phases should produce from other fields in the area where Shell has an interest.

Ann Pickard, Country Chair of Shell in Australia said "this will be a game changer for the energy industry. We will be deploying this revolutionary technology first in Australian waters, where it will add another dimension to Australia's already vibrant gas industry."

Brinded added "beyond this, our ambition is to develop more FLNG projects globally. Our design can accommodate a range of gas fields, and our strategic partnership with Technip and Samsung should enable us to apply it progressively faster for future projects. We see opportunities around the world to work on other FLNG projects with governments, energy companies and customers."

Shell's decision to make FLNG a reality culminates more than a decade of research and development. It builds on the company's extensive know-how in offshore production, gas liquefaction, LNG shipping, and delivering major projects that integrate the gas value chain-from wellhead to burner.

The Prelude FLNG project will be the first Australian upstream project in which Shell is the operator. Australia is one of Shell's key growth provinces, and Shell's upstream investment in Australia should reach some $30 billion over the next five years, including the Prelude and Gorgon projects, and on-going exploration and feasibility studies in the country.

Prelude FLNG is part of Shell's industry-leading portfolio of medium term growth options, where the company has around 30 new upstream projects under study world-wide, to support long term profitable growth.
Notes to Editors

Shell is a global, integrated energy company with operations in more than 90 countries and territories, with businesses including: oil and gas exploration and production; refineries and chemical plants; processing and marketing of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas-to-liquid (GTL) products; marketing and shipping of oil products and chemicals; and renewable energy sources, such as biofuels.

Gas resources are found all over the world in remote offshore accumulations. In Australian waters alone there is an estimated 140 trillion cubic feet of such "stranded" gas, according to a 2008 report by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation ( Shell FLNG technology will make it feasible to develop such resources, since it reduces both the cost and environmental footprint of their development. Having the gas-processing and gas-liquefaction facility located at the site of an offshore field removes the need for: gas-compression platforms; long subsea pipelines to shore; near-shore works, such as dredging and jetty construction; and onshore construction, including roads, storage yards and accommodation facilities. Another plus is that FLNG can accelerate LNG developments. This is because an FLNG vessel can be ordered at an earlier stage of appraisal of a new gas field, with less guarantee of production longevity than needed to underpin an onshore greenfield investment; if and when the gas resources in the first field are exhausted, the FLNG can be redeployed to another field.

Shell is the operator and 100% equity holder of the WA-371-P permit in the Browse Basin, where the Prelude field is located. The field is approximately 475 kilometres north-northeast of Broome, Western Australia, and over 200 kilometres from the nearest point on the mainland. Shell plans to have initially seven subsea wells at the Prelude field. From these wells, gas will travel through flexible pipes to the FLNG facility.

Shell has been doing business in Australia for 110 years, including participation in major LNG projects such as the North West Shelf and Gorgon.
For more information, interview requests or photography, please contact:

Shell Media Relations

Australia, Claire Wilkinson, +61 (0)416924822

Group: Kirsten Smart, +31 70 3773600
Cautionary Note

The companies in which Royal Dutch Shell plc directly and indirectly owns investments are separate entities. In this press release "Shell", "Shell group" and "Royal Dutch Shell" are sometimes used for convenience where references are made to Royal Dutch Shell plc and its subsidiaries in general. Likewise, the words "we", "us" and "our" are also used to refer to subsidiaries in general or to those who work for them. These expressions are also used where no useful purpose is served by identifying the particular company or companies. ''Subsidiaries'', "Shell subsidiaries" and "Shell companies" as used in this press release refer to companies in which Royal Dutch Shell either directly or indirectly has control, by having either a majority of the voting rights or the right to exercise a controlling influence. The companies in which Shell has significant influence but not control are referred to as "associated companies" or "associates" and companies in which Shell has joint control are referred to as "jointly controlled entities". In this press release, associates and jointly controlled entities are also referred to as "equity-accounted investments". The term "Shell interest" is used for convenience to indicate the direct and/or indirect (for example, through our 24% shareholding in Woodside Petroleum Ltd.) ownership interest held by Shell in a venture, partnership or company, after exclusion of all third-party interest.

This press release contains forward-looking statements concerning the financial condition, results of operations and businesses of Royal Dutch Shell. All statements other than statements of historical fact are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are statements of future expectations that are based on management's current expectations and assumptions and involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied in these statements. Forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements concerning the potential exposure of Royal Dutch Shell to market risks and statements expressing management's expectations, beliefs, estimates, forecasts, projections and assumptions. These forward-looking statements are identified by their use of terms and phrases such as ''anticipate'', ''believe'', ''could'', ''estimate'', ''expect'', ''intend'', ''may'', ''plan'', ''objectives'', ''outlook'', ''probably'', ''project'', ''will'', ''seek'', ''target'', ''risks'', ''goals'', ''should'' and similar terms and phrases. There are a number of factors that could affect the future operations of Royal Dutch Shell and could cause those results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements included in this press release, including (without limitation): (a) price fluctuations in crude oil and natural gas; (b) changes in demand for Shell's products; (c) currency fluctuations; (d) drilling and production results; (e) reserves estimates; (f) loss of market share and industry competition; (g) environmental and physical risks; (h) risks associated with the identification of suitable potential acquisition properties and targets, and successful negotiation and completion of such transactions; (i) the risk of doing business in developing countries and countries subject to international sanctions; (j) legislative, fiscal and regulatory developments including regulatory measures addressing climate change; (k) economic and financial market conditions in various countries and regions; (l) political risks, including the risks of expropriation and renegotiation of the terms of contracts with governmental entities, delays or advancements in the approval of projects and delays in the reimbursement for shared costs; and (m) changes in trading conditions. All forward-looking statements contained in this press release are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. Readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Additional factors that may affect future results are contained in Royal Dutch Shell's 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2010 (available at and ). These factors also should be considered by the reader. Each forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of this press release, 20 May, 2011. Neither Royal Dutch Shell nor any of its subsidiaries undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or other information. In light of these risks, results could differ materially from those stated, implied or inferred from the forward-looking statements contained in this press release.

We may have used certain terms in this press release, such as resources, that the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) guidelines strictly prohibit us from including in filings with the SEC. U.S. Investors are urged to consider closely the disclosure in our Form 20-F, File No 1-32575, available on the SEC website You can also obtain these forms from the SEC by calling 1-800-SEC-0330.

Monday, March 21, 2011

The shortcomings of the Nigeria Prize for Literature

The shortcomings of the Nigeria Prize for Literature

The Nigeria Prize for Literature, endowed by the Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) Limited is a great thing. It is an unprecedented initiative of immense benefit to Nigerian writers and the society for the appreciation of our literary culture.
I have been following the progress of the Nigeria Prize for Literature without any objection to the administration, but not impressed by the impact on the sustainable development of Nigerian literature. There is too much emphasis on the cash prize of $50,000 when the focus should be on promoting the revival of our reading culture for the intellectual development of the Nigerian society that is presently breeding philistines.

The Nigerian Prize for Literature has made the lucky winners richer, but it has failed to make us wiser, because many of the prizes winning books have not reached the majority of the Nigerian society, except the intelligentsia.
The Man Booker Prize, Orange Prize, Pulitzer Prize, Commonwealth Prize and other highly coveted literary awards increase the public appreciation of the winners and their books, but the Nigeria Prize for Literature has failed to make the winners bestsellers and becoming a bestselling author is the dream of every writer.
It looks like there is no budget for a comprehensive media plan for the Nigeria Prize for Literature, because there is no tangible publicity plan for the public appreciation of the winning books beyond the public announcements of the shortlisted authors, the winners and prize giving gala ceremonies. Everybody returns to business as usual after the events and the lucky winner of the $50, 000 prize smiles to the bank. But none of the prize winning books has become a bestseller and the author hardly goes on any book signing tour like in America, the UK or other countries where prize winning books become sought after collector’s items and sell like hot cakes.
What is the use of winning a book prize, but your book is not in demand?
The fact that is; the reading culture in Nigeria is still poor after the efforts of some individuals and groups to promote reading and President Goodluck Jonathan launched a widely publicized “Bring Back the Book” campaign.
The revival of our reading culture is a challenge to the administrators of the Nigeria Prize for Literature.
How can we use the prize to revive the general appreciation of reading in Nigeria?

May I advise the administrators of the Nigeria Prize for Literature to review the budget and the media plan and consider spending more on the promotion of the prize winning books to attract the attention and appreciation of the public.
The promotion of the winning book will attract more readers and boost our reading culture.
Invite the public to vote for the shortlisted books, because such an open invitation will be a good motivation for the public appreciation of the books and will definitely boost their interest to read them.

The Nigeria Prize for Literature needs more cooperation and support of the Nigerian news media to achieve more for the overall benefit of the Nigerian society. The Guardian and other Nigerian newspapers should learn from The New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, the Guardian of the UK and others in America and Europe by dedicating more pages to literary appreciation such as initiating and promoting a Nigerian Bestsellers List for both fiction and non-fiction like New York Times: Best-Seller Lists, Book of the Month and other promotions that will go a long way to increase the public appreciation of the goals and objectives of the Nigeria Prize for Literature beyond the competition for the cash prize and the glitz of the ceremony.

~ By Ekenyerengozi Michael Chima

Thursday, July 8, 2010

Snamprogetti Netherlands B.V. Agrees to Pay $240 Million Penalty in Nigeria LNG Bribery Scandal

7 Jul 2010 18:01 Africa/Lagos

Snamprogetti Netherlands B.V. Resolves Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Investigation and Agrees to Pay $240 Million Criminal Penalty

$1.28 Billion in Total Penalties Obtained to Date for Scheme to Bribe Nigerian Government Officials to Obtain Contracts

WASHINGTON, July 7 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Snamprogetti Netherlands B.V., (Snamprogetti) has agreed to pay a $240 million criminal penalty to resolve charges related to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) for its participation in a decade-long scheme to bribe Nigerian government officials to obtain engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contracts, the Department of Justice announced today. The EPC contracts to build liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities on Bonny Island, Nigeria, were valued at more than $6 billion.

The department filed a deferred prosecution agreement and a criminal information today against Snamprogetti in U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas. The two-count information charges Snamprogetti with one count of conspiracy and one count of aiding and abetting violations of the FCPA. During the relevant time period, Snamprogetti, a Dutch corporation headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, was a wholly owned subsidiary of Snamprogetti S.p.A., an Italian EPC company headquartered in Milan, Italy.

Snamprogetti, Kellogg Brown & Root Inc. (KBR), Technip S.A. (Technip) and an engineering and construction company headquartered in Yokohama, Japan, were part of a four-company joint venture that was awarded four EPC contracts by Nigeria LNG Ltd. (NLNG), between 1995 and 2004 to build LNG facilities on Bonny Island. The government-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) was the largest shareholder of NLNG, owning 49 percent of the company.

According to court documents, Snamprogetti authorized the joint venture to hire two agents, Jeffrey Tesler and a Japanese trading company, to pay bribes to a range of Nigerian government officials, including top-level executive branch officials, to assist Snamprogetti and the joint venture in obtaining the EPC contracts. At crucial junctures preceding the award of EPC contracts, Snamprogetti's co-conspirators met with successive holders of a top-level office in the executive branch of the Nigerian government to ask the office holders to designate a representative with whom the joint venture should negotiate bribes to Nigerian government officials. The joint venture paid approximately $132 million to a Gibraltar corporation controlled by Tesler and more than $50 million to the Japanese trading company during the course of the bribery scheme. According to court documents, Snamprogetti intended for these payments to be used, in part, for bribes to Nigerian government officials.

Under the terms of the deferred prosecution agreement, the department agreed to defer prosecution of Snamprogetti for two years. Snamprogetti, its current parent company, Saipem S.p.A., and its former parent company, ENI S.p.A. (ENI), agreed to ensure that their compliance programs satisfied certain standards and to cooperate with the department in ongoing investigations. If Snamprogetti and its current and former parent companies abide by the terms of the deferred prosecution agreement, the department will dismiss the criminal information when the term of the agreement expires.

In related cases, KBR's former CEO, Albert "Jack" Stanley, pleaded guilty in September 2008 to conspiring to violate the FCPA for his participation in the bribery scheme, while KBR's successor company, Kellogg Brown & Root LLC, pleaded guilty in February 2009 to charges related to the FCPA for its participation in the scheme to bribe Nigerian government officials. Kellogg Brown & Root LLC was ordered to pay a $402 million fine and to retain an independent compliance monitor for a three-year period to review the design and implementation of its compliance program. In addition, Tesler and Wojciech Chodan, a former salesperson and consultant of a United Kingdom subsidiary of KBR, were indicted in February 2009 on charges related to the FCPA for their alleged participation in the bribery scheme. The United States has requested these defendants' extradition from the United Kingdom. In another related criminal case, the department filed a deferred prosecution agreement and criminal information against Technip on June 28, 2010. According to that agreement, Technip agreed to pay a $240 million criminal penalty and to retain an independent compliance monitor for two years.

Today, Snamprogetti and ENI also reached a settlement of a related civil complaint filed by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), charging Snamprogetti with violating the FCPA's anti-bribery provisions, falsifying books and records, and circumventing internal controls and charging ENI with violating the FCPA's books and records and internal controls provisions. As part of that settlement, Snamprogetti and ENI agreed jointly to pay $125 million in disgorgement of profits relating to those violations

"The resolutions in this investigation demonstrate the U.S. government's commitment to identifying and holding accountable all companies and individuals who scheme to bribe foreign government officials to win business," said Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General Mythili Raman of the Criminal Division. "Snamprogetti and its joint-venture partners conspired to pursue lucrative contracts through a massive bribery scheme - a scheme that has led to more than $1.28 billion in criminal and civil penalties to date. The monetary penalties and enforcement actions that have resulted from this investigation should send a clear message to companies and their employees that using foreign bribery as a means of winning contracts abroad will be punished."

"Today's resolution is yet another example of the FBI's willingness to aggressively investigate individuals and businesses that engage in corrupt conduct around the globe," said Kevin L. Perkins, assistant director of the FBI's Criminal Investigative Division. "Those who elect to expand or protect their business interests through the payment of illegal bribes to foreign public officials should know that they are not beyond the reach of the FBI. Together, with our law enforcement partners around the world, we will identify these bad actors and work with the Justice Department to prosecute them under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other appropriate federal statutes."

The criminal case is being prosecuted by Acting Assistant Chief William J. Stuckwisch and Deputy Chief Patrick F. Stokes of the Criminal Division's Fraud Section, with investigative assistance from the FBI-Houston Division. The Criminal Division's Office of International Affairs provided substantial assistance. Significant assistance was provided by the SEC's Division of Enforcement and by authorities in France, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

Source: U.S. Department of Justice

CONTACT: U.S. Department of Justice, +1-202-514-2007 or +1-202-514-1888

Web Site:

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Saturday, March 27, 2010

A Chronology of Key Events in the Halliburton Bribery Scandal in Nigeria


Halliburton and Nigeria:
A Chronology of Key Events in the Unfolding Bribery Scandal

1988: Dresser Industries acquires M.W. Kellogg, ten years before Dresser merges with Halliburton.

September 1994: M.W. Kellogg and three other companies form a partnership known as TSKJ, incorporated in Medeira, Portugal. Each partner owns a 25 percent equal share. Kellogg's three other partners are Technip of France, Italy's Snamprogetti, and Japan Gasoline Corp. The partnership submits a bid to Nigeria LNG to build a natural gas plant in Nigeria. Nigeria LNG is owned by the Nigerian government and Royal Dutch/Shell Group. TSKJ's $2 billion bid is not immediately accepted even though it was 5 percent lower than a bid submitted by competitor, Bechtel Group, Inc.

November 1994: As TSKJ awaits Nigeria's decision on the bid, Wojciech Chodan, an executive at Kellogg and later a consultant for Kellogg Brown & Root, meets with London lawyer Jefferey Tesler, who is known for his contacts and friendly relations with the Nigerian government, including its dictator Gen. Sani Abacha. During the meeting, they discussed channeling $40 million to Gen. Abacha through Mr. Tesler's firm Tri-Star, based in Gibralter, Spain.

March 1995: TSKJ formally hires Mr. Tesler as agent; TSKJ's bid has still not been accepted by Nigeria LNG. Mr. Tesler's employment contract is signed by an M.W. Kellogg executive on behalf of the TSKJ partnership. Mr. Tesler had been working on behalf of TSKJ prior to March 1995 and the employment contract was given to Mr. Tesler as a reward for his prodding of Nigerian officials. The employment contract provided that Mr. Tesler would be paid $60 million if Nigeria awarded the construction contract to TSKJ. Mr. Tesler's Tri-Star was contracted to receive at least $160 million in five agreements signed between 1995 and 2002, and the funds were directed to bank accounts in Switzerland and Monaco.

March 20, 1995: Dan Etete replaces Nigeria's former oil minister, who has a falling out with the dicatator, Gen. Abacha. "In an interrogation of Mr. Tesler, a French magistrate described the London lawyer's transfer of $2.5 million into Swiss bank accounts held by Mr. Etete under a false name between 1996 and 1998. Mr. Tesler confirmed making the payments but told the magistrate that the money was for an investment in offshore oil exploration leases in Nigeria and that he wasn't aware the accounts belonged to Mr. Etete, according to people familiar with the interrogation." (Wall Street Journal, Sept. 29, 2004.)

June 1995: Albert Jack Stanley is promoted to president and chief operating officer of M.W. Kellogg after serving as executive vice president since 1991 and various positions since 1975.

August 1995: Dick Cheney is hired as CEO of Halliburton, three years before he directs the merger of Halliburton with Dresser Industries and M.W. Kellogg. He serves as CEO until August of 2000.

December 1995: TSKJ is finally awarded the $2 billion contract from Nigeria LNG.

July 1996: M.W. Kellogg promotes Albert Jack Stanley to chairman, president and chief executive officer; he also becomes vice president of operations for the parent, Dresser Industries.

February 1998: Halliburton and M.W. Kellogg's parent, Dresser Industries, agree to a $7.7 billion merger directed by Dick Cheney. M.W. Kellogg is merged with Halliburton's Brown & Root subsidiary to form Kellogg, Brown & Root. Albert Jack Stanley is named as chairman of the new subsidiary. The Independent (UK) reported that "Mr Stanley had been appointed to his senior role at Halliburton by Mr Cheney when he was chief executive between 1995 and 2000." (The Independent, Oct. 3, 2004.) The Wall Street Journal confirmed that Cheney "named Mr. Stanley … to a top post at the company in 1998." (Wall Street Journal, Sept. 29, 2004.) Cheney told the Middle East Economic Digest in 1999 that, "We took Jack Stanley … to head up the organization and that has helped tremendously." (Middle East Economic Digest, April 9, 1999.)

1999: The TSKJ partners, with Kellogg Brown & Root acting as the lead partner, agree to reappoint Mr. Tesler as its agent during a meeting in London. Kellogg wanted Mr. Tesler, with whom it had a long-term relationship, to attend. But the representative from the French partner, Technip, wanted a different agent and insisted that Mr. Tesler be excluded from the meeting. William Chaudan, the Kellogg representative at TSKJ, said Mr. Tesler had been selected on Kellogg's recommendation and over Technip's "strong opposition." (Financial Times, London, Sept. 16, 2004.) Halliburton officials in Houston deny that Kellogg Brown & Root demanded Mr. Tesler's participation. Three new contracts with Mr. Tesler required TSKJ to pay his firm, Tri-Star, $32.5 million for his services in Nigeria. Richard Northmore, a sales manager for M.W. Kellogg in England, signed contracts with Mr. Tesler for TSKJ. Syed Nasser, M.W. Kellogg's legal director, acted as counsel to the TSKJ consortium, approving Mr Tesler's role. Bhaskar Patel, a sales and marketing vice-president who works in Kellogg, Brown & Root's office in England, also worked with Mr. Tesler.

March 1999: Halliburton announces the Nigerian government awarded a $1.2 billion contract to TSKJ to expand the construction of the natural gas plant from two trains to three trains in order to increase the plant's capacity by 50 percent. At the time, Stanley declared the contract award exemplifies Kellogg's "project execution skills." (Halliburton press release, March 11, 1999.)

October 1999: First shipment of liquefied natural gas is shipped from Nigeria.

October 2003: French magistrate initiates investigation of suspicious payments made by TSKJ after a former executive with one of TSKJ's partners, Technip of France, said Mr. Tesler is "directly linked to corruption in Nigeria." (Financial Times, London, Sept. 16, 2004.) Halliburton admitted that TSKJ paid $132 million in "advisory fees" to Mr. Tesler and that under Tesler's contract with the company the money was not to be used for bribery. But the French investigator said the payments to Mr. Tesler "appear completely unjustified." (Wall Street Journal, Sept. 29, 2004.) The money was paid to Mr. Tesler between 1995 and 2002, more than half of which came after 1999. Under French law, Mr. Cheney could be subject to a charge of "abuse of corporate assets" even if he knew nothing about the alleged improper payments during his tenure as Halliburton's chief executive. The U.S. antibribery law applies only to executives who are aware of illicit payments to foreign officials. (Dallas Morning News, Sept. 8, 2004.) The Wall Street Journal reported that French authorities don't have jurisdiction over Halliburton in this case but are sharing information with U.S. authorities. (Wall Street Journal, Sept. 29, 2004.) "A preliminary investigation by the Police Judiciaire of France found that LNG Servicos, a company indirectly owned by the four partners in the Nigerian joint venture, made four payments totaling at least $166 million at times that roughly coincide with the award of contracts. The payments went to a Gibraltar company owned by a London attorney to a Swiss bank account that was later closed at the request of the bank." (Dallas Morning News, Jan. 25, 2004.)

December 2003: Albert Jack Stanley retires as chairman of Kellogg Brown & Root, but retains a position as consultant for Halliburton.

June 2004: Halliburton fires Albert Jack Stanley after investigators say he received $5 million in "improper" payments from Mr. Tesler. It also fires William Chaudan, the Kellogg representative at TSKJ. Halliburton spokesperson, Wendy Hall, said that during the years he ran KBR, Mr. Stanley reported to David Lesar, Halliburton's president and chief operating officer at the time and CEO today. Mr. Lesar reported to Mr. Cheney when Cheney was chief executive. (Dallas Morning News, Sept. 8, 2004.) (Important Note: Lesar is an accountant and former Arthur Andersen partner, meaning he may have been in a position to know about the purpose of payments to Tesler when they occurred.) According to the Dallas Morning News, "Mr. Cheney ran Halliburton when one of four suspicious payments occurred." (Dallas Morning News, Sept. 8, 2004.)

June 2004: It is reported that Tesler put $1 million into an account held by William Chaudan, the Kellogg representative at TSKJ. "The company has since learned that even larger sums may have gone into the accounts of Mr. Stanley and Mr. Chaudan." (Dallas Morning News, Sept. 3, 2004.) Chaudan retired from M.W. Kellogg Co. in 1998, but had continued as a consultant. (Dallas Morning News, June 19, 2004.)

August 2004: Nigeria's parliament votes unanimously to summon Halliburton CEO, David Lesar, to answer questions over its bribery investigation. It issues a report recommending that Halliburton and TSKJ be disqualified from bidding on future government projects. It denounces what it calls Halliburton's "hide-and-seek games" to avoid questions from government investigators.

September 2004: TSKJ severs all ties to Mr. Tesler and his firm, Tri-Star.

September 2004: The Wall Street Journal reports on newly disclosed evidence by Halliburton, including notes written by M.W. Kellogg employees during the mid-1990s in which they discussed bribing Nigerian officials. The Financial Times of London said the evidence "raises questions over what Mr Cheney knew - or should have known - about one of the largest contracts awarded to a Halliburton subsidiary." (Financial Times, Sept. 16, 2004.) The written notes were discovered by Halliburton's lawyer, James Doty, a lead partner in the Houston law firm Baker Botts. The "Baker" in Baker Botts is Bush family lawyer James Baker, the same lawyer credited with winning Florida for Bush Jr. over Gore. Baker also served as President George H. Bush's Secretary of State. Doty was general counsel to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the senior President Bush. He was SEC general counsel when the SEC investigated Bush Jr. for insider trading. Doty recused himself from the case, which was eventually closed without action. Bush Jr. was never interviewed. Although Bush's lawyers gave the "smoking gun" in that case to the SEC the day after it closed the investigation, Doty refused to reopen the case. (Washington Post, Nov. 1, 2002.)

September 2004: Nigeria's President Olusegun Obasanjo officially bans Halliburton from bidding on future government contracts because it violated safety regulations for nuclear material. The president accuses the company of negligently causing the disappearance of two highly sensitive radioactive devices used to take measurements in oil wells. The ban is apparently not related to the ongoing bribery investigations.

October 2004: Revelations about Halliburton's central role in the bribery investigation forces United Kingdom's Export Credit Guarantee Department (ECGD) to consider withdrawing its support of a 133 million (British pounds) loan made last year to Kellogg. ECGD said it originally supported the loan on the basis that Halliburton was merely a "subcontractor to the [TSKJ] consortium and financial arrangements were not their responsibility," but it was maintaining a "watching brief" on the French investigation. (The Independent, Oct. 3, 2004).

October 22, 2004: Investigators with Nigeria's parliament complain that Halliburton is not being cooperative in their investigation of the alleged bribery. The investigators say Mr. Tesler paid bribes on behalf of TSKJ to Nigerian government officials. The bribes were paid in installments: $60 million in 1995, $37.5 million in 1999, $51 million in 2001 and $23 million in 2002.

June 20, 2005: The French newspaper LeFigaro reports that a U.S. Justice Department official held "lengthy" meetings with French authorities in Paris on the issue of TSKJ bribes. It said an unnamed U.S. source asserted that the bribery scandal is "probably the most significant file of corruption" known in Washington today.

Sept. 22, 2006: A former Halliburton employee says he has evidence proving the company has embarked on a campaign to cover-up all wrongdoing, including attempts to mislead federal investigators.


Solomon Hughes and Jason Nisse, "How Cheney's Firm Routed $132m to Nigeria via Tottenham Lawyer," The Independent (UK), Oct. 3, 2004.

Russell Gold and Charles Fleming, "Out of Africa: In Halliburton Nigeria Probe, A Search for Bribes to a Dictator," Wall Street Journal, Sept. 29, 2004, p.A1.

Michael Peel, "Nigeria gas consortium 'evasive', says probe chief," Financial Times (London), Aug. 23 2004.

Michael Peel, "Halliburton angers Nigerian MPs in 'bribes' hearing," Financial Times (London), Oct. 22, 2004.

"Halliburton 'backed' bribes probe agent," Financial Times (London), Sept. 16, 2004.

Middle East Economic Digest, April 9, 1999, p. 7.

Peter Behr, "Bush Sold Stock After Lawyers' Warning; SEC Closed Probe Before Receiving Letter From Harken's Outside Attorneys," Washington Post, Nov. 1, 2002.

Nigeria House of Representatives Petition Committee, Interim Report: The Halliburton/TSKJ/LNG Investigation, Summary of Facts, Sept. 2004.

Richard Whittle and Jim Landers, "Cheney's years at Halliburton under scrutiny," Dallas Morning News, Sept. 8, 2004.

Jim Landers and Richard Whittle, "Details emerge in bribery probe; Cheney isn't focus of French inquiry of Nigerian gas project," Dallas Morning News, Jan. 25, 2004.

Jim Landers and Richard Whittle, "Bribery case findings detailed; Halliburton says incidents predate ownership of firm," Dallas Morning News, Sept. 3, 2004.

Richard Whittle and Jim Landers, "Halliburton fires two consultants; Company says 'improper personal benefits' received in Nigerian gas deal," Dallas Morning News, June 19, 2004.

"Bush family lawyer James Doty hired to conduct internal probe of Halliburton involvement in Nigeria payments," Corporate Crime Reporter, February 16, 2004.

Ahamefula Ogbu, "$180m LNG Scam: Witnesses Stall Investigation,", Oct. 21, 2004.